There are three main types of rocks: igneous, sedimentary, and metamorphic. The igneous rock goes through a process of cooling and solidification of magma to become a rock. The Latin for igneous is igneus which actually means fire. They are not necessarily formed by crystallization and can be either intrusive or extrusive ( These rocks form at mid-ocean ridges, subduction zones, and the area where continental crust is pushed together ( The sedimentary rock are formed by the process of sedimentation which is the process in which sediments settle out of a fluid and come to rest together. Sediments are generally formed by weathering and erosion. Although the sedimentary rock may cover many areas of the Earth's crust, it only makes up 5% of the volume of the crust ( Sedimentary rocks form either at or near the surface of the Earth and can be displaced by water, wind, and ice deposited on dry land ( True to its name, the metamorphic rock is a rock that has changed its form from an existing rock type. There is a protolith, which can be an igneous, a sedimentary, or another metamorphic rock, and the protolith experiences physical and chemical change due to extreme heat and pressure. Much of the earth's crust is made up of these metamorphic rocks ( The origins of a metamorphic rock are based on the extent of its metamorphism: regional metamorphism and contact metamorphism. One must name the rock which is done after identifying how the rock originated. It is a very difficult procedure that isn't as easy as identifying igneous or sedimentary (

Talc is often used for surfaces of lab counter tops and electrical switchboards because of its resistance to heat, electricity and acids.
Fluorite may be drilled into beads and used in jewelry, although due to its relative softness it is not widely used as a semiprecious stone.

Quartz is also used in the manufacturing of the tubes, crucibles and glass (which is one of the apparatus used for conducting precise laboratory experiments) which are used in a laboratory. It can also be used to make very precise watches.
quartz.jpgQuartz Watch Crystal

Materials: Soil, 50 ml plastic tubes. water. a couple drops of dishwashing soap.

1. The basic idea behind separation is that sand drops to the bottom fast. Silt takes a little longer (30 min) to drop to the bottom. Clay takes 24 hours or more to come out of solution. Put three 50 ml tubes in a rack or cup. Put 15 ml of soil into the first tube to the 15 ml line. Tap the soil down to make sure it has no air pockets.

2. Use a pipette and add 1 ml of a little soapy water to the soil sample (it is a dispersent) and fill the tube to the 45 ml line with tap water. Cap and gently shake for 2 minutes making sure that the soil sample is well mixed in. REMOVE ORGANIC MATERIAL FROM THE TOP. Then add water to fill to the 45 ml line if there is less than 45 ml.

3. Let the tube sit for 30 seconds, open the cap and carefully pour the solution into the second tube. Be sure not to dump the solid contents into the second tube. Let this sit for 30 minutes.
a. read how much sand is left in the tube
~11 ml
b. read how much liquid was poured over and subtract from 45 ml
~34 ml poured over
~11 ml (difference between 45 and 34)


4. Pour the solution off into the third tube and let this sit overnight.


5. Calculate how much of sand, silt and clay there is one of these two ways
a. method
15 ml (initial volume of soil)
subtract ml of solids in tube 1 (sand)
subtract ml of solids in tube 2 (silt)
solids left over is the clay
(the stuff floating on the top are organic litter )
15-11-2.5=1.5 ml of clay


1.5 / 15 X 100 = 10% Clay

2.5 / 15 X 100 = 16.67% Silt

11 / 15 X 100 = 73.33% Sand

Comp. Sand
Comp. Silt
Comp. Clay
This is a cast because it fills in the mold of a fossil.


Amber is the fossilized resin from ancient forests. It is produced from plant resin rather than tree sap.

It is typically invertebrate animals that are contained inside amber. There is, however, a very rare chance that a lizard or other tiny vertebrate could be contained.

Limestone is a sedimentary rock and a great preserver of fossils. They contain the exoskeletons instead of the actual preserved creature.

The youngest rocks are generally 70-80 million years old. The oldest are right around 150 million years old.

Yes, DNA can be preserved within amber because in order for the insect to keep its bodily figure, it must still contain DNA. There is no universally accepted answer as to why DNA has lasted though.

Fake amber can be easily produced by heating plastic. It will generally look to perfect to be real, but can be sold for a decent amount of money if done well.

Fake amber and real amber have slightly different densities or specific gravities. A good way to determine is to stick the head of a hot needle into the specimen because real amber will give off a piney smell, but many don't want to risk ruining their prized possession. Amber burns with black smoke while fake amber will generally burn with whitish smoke. Another way is to use nail polish remover because copal (fake amber) is soluble while amber is not.

The nail polish remover would work for sure, and if I was sneaky enough, the needle would work because chances are it isn't real amber so I wouldn't have to worry about ruining it.