DNA Replication
Step 1: Topoisomerase
This step is displaying the unwinding of the super coiled DNA clipping which is represented on the right side of the picture.

Step 2: Helicase
The left side of his picture is representing the "melting" of the hydrogenbonds that hold the bases together.

Step 3: Primase
This is displaying the creation of an RNA segment of the DNA strand. The twisting represents the DNA nucleotides filling the gap.

Step 4: DNA Polymerase
This is the process of the guiding the nucleotide to bond with its complementary pair. It was clamped down.

Step 5: Ligase
I used tape and put in a new color of straw to represent the covalent bond between sugars and phosphates to fill the gap.

DNA Extraction of Wheat

There are a number of ways to check the validity of DNA, but most of those require serious equipment we can't get our hands on. There is an experiment in which we must acquire a spectophotometer. You heat the the DNA sample to 90 degrees C, the DNA's UV light absorption will increase to a wavelength of approximately 260 nm. The heating will cause some of the DNA to become single-stranded which allows them to absorb more UV light. The smaller DNAse will have a lower viscosity and this is a non-toxic method. Another method would be to put it in a blender for 5-10 seconds with salty water and then gently stir with 2-3 teaspoons of soap. The DNA will float to the top after sitting for a period of time. I've been looking for over an hour and cannot find anything, so this is the best I can do.



2N 4N 2N 1N
These two strands are in the same cell. They multiplied and are still in the same cell. These are four separate cells. This is one cell by itself.

2N 4N 2N
Strands in same cell. Still in same cell but added extra strands. Separated into new cells.