Exercise 1: Dissection of Wing

Milwaukee-20110401-00073.jpg
Milwaukee-20110401-00072.jpg

Milwaukee-20110401-00075.jpg
Milwaukee-20110401-00071.jpg


chicken_wing_lableled.jpg
Exercise 2: Comparative Anatomy of Arm Vs. Wing

chicken_wing_lableled_complete.jpg
chicken_wing_diagram.png

The carpals in the bird are very long and slender whereas the human have wider based carpals that branch out to five fingers. The humerus in the bird is thicker than all the other arm bones just like the human humerus, but it seems way shorter in comparison to the radius and ulna unlike the human humerus.
The human has 206 bones. The human has a total of three phalanges in each finger and two in each thumb which is also mimicked in the toes. This mean that each appendage has a total of 14 phalanges, which means the body has 56 total phalanges. About 1 in 4 bones in the human body is a phalanges. We have 5 metacarpals for each hand which would be a total of 10 metacarpals and about 1 out of every 20 bones in our body is a metacarpal.


Exercise 3: Comparative Anatomy of Bone Structure

1. They seem to be weaved together and rather brittle and hard. The human bones seem to be more complete or contain more mass than the chicken wing.
2. Because birds have feathers and are rather skinny with the exception of the mid-section so they may not have to have as massive of bones to support their body. Chickens don't go through the wear and tear humans are built to put up with as well. Human bones are filled with marrow. We consume much more calcium and vitamin d than chickens do which would give us stronger bones. Chickens have a thin outer layer to their bones.
3. a) Bones are actually dynamic structures that reflects growth. Bones stop growing when it is cold outside. The arrangement of blood vessels, minerals, proteins, nerves, and cells effect the rate at which the bones grow.
b) We determine growth rates by measuring how mass changes as an organism gets colder. Growth rates differ exponentially amongst animals of different sizes.
c) Longevity in age of animals is measured in annual cycles similar to that of rings on trees.
d) We use bone histology with mass calculations to interpret the growth rates of dead dinosaurs, one of those being the LAG method like the rings on trees.